By Shreya → Thursday, 2 March 2017

India has a vast coastline of 7516.6 km and about 70% of the shipping is done by the marine transport system. All the ports and shipping industries plays a major role in the growth of our country. The government has many further plans to increase this marine shipping field and its maintenance. there are around 13 major ports and 200 around secondary ports located in the states of Tamilnadu Karnataka, Pondicherry, West Bengal etc.The ports and shipping industry in India plays a vital role in sustaining growth in the country’s trade and commerce. The Indian Government has allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of up to 100 per cent under the automatic route for port and harbour construction and maintenance projects . The government has also initiated National Maritime Development Programme (NMDP), an initiative to develop the maritime sector with a planned outlay of US$ 11.8 billion . Further , the ports can be classified in a several different ways . Indian government has a federal structure , and according to its constitution, maritime transport is to be administered by both the Central and the State governments . While the central government's shipping ministry administers the major ports, the minor and intermediate ports are administered by the relevant departments or ministries in the nine coastal states Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat . Several of these 187 minor and intermediate ports have been identified by the respective governments to be developed , in a phased manner , a good proportion of them involving public–private partnership .

Some of the Indian ports are as follows:
1)Jawaharlal Nehru port trust:
Jnpt commonly called as Nhava-sheva is located in uran.it implements the logistics data tagging of containers where each container is attached a rfid tag and the containers are tagged via it. Today JNPT Port has already established itself as the major catalyst for the trade & commerce in the country with a strong commitment to provide seamless service to the customers & as the India’s prime facilitator of international trade & logistics.It also has the cargo handling and vessel traffic system.It is one of the technical marvels which was constructed in a period of 3 and half years.Built at the cost of Rs. 880 crore, this port is named Jawaharlal Nehru port as a tribute to the first prime minister of India. The main purpose of this port is to release pressure on the Mumbai port.

Vishakhapatnam port:
It is one of the the major port in the state of Andrapradesh. It is situated  between Kolkata and Chennai.  Port has three harbours - the outer harbour, inner harbour and the fishing harbour. There is an on-going expansion program . The location of the port is very ideal in the sense that it affords protection from cyclones .It is also planning to increase its cargo handling.The Dolphin's Nose Hill to the north of the entrance channel protects the harbour from cyclones that strike the east coast . The port is located on the area of a creek through which the coastal river Narava Gedda joins the sea.

New Mangalore port:
It is the only major port located in the state of Karnataka on the west side. They have the speciality of exporting iron-ore,cashews,manganese and different types of chemicals etc.It is suited in Panambur beach.It has a major number of cargo facilities likeharbour mobile crane, reach stackers etc.it was a well planned storage capacity,open stackyard etc. There is lot of improvement in the  containers traffic . The port handled 5.78 million tonnes (5.30 million tonnes) of imported crude oil for Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd (MRPL) during the first five months. MRPL is one of the major users of the port.

Kolkata port:
Kolkata port in located in the state of Karnataka about 233 km from the sea.it has two major docks one at Kolkata and the other at haldia.It consists of following:
   Kidderpore Docks
   Neetaji Subhas Dock
   Budge-Budge river Moorings.
The haldia dock consists of following:
    Impounded Dock System with 12 berths.
    3 oil jetties in river
    3 Barge Jetties in the river for handling oil carried by Barges.
It also has the largest dry dock facility in India which is especially used in the maintainance and repairing of ships.It also has various facilities like pilotage,lighthouse,light vessels etc.

Chennai port:
This port is about 100 years old and is located in the south east India.It is the second largest port after Nhava Sheva.Chennai port area is divided into north,central and south zones and fishing harbours.The port has 26 alongside,including 21 deep-drafted berths and 2 oil jetties,in the 3 deck viz, Dr AmbedkarDock,Satabt Jawahar Dock,and Bharathi Dock along with the container terminal and draft ranging.It handles a lot of cargo like iron-ore,granite,coal etc.It has two terminals national and international.The port has following equipments:
S.NoEquipment TypeDescriptionQuantity
1.Rail Mounted Quay Crane(RMQC)Twin Lift Capability Outreach : 52m,18 across7
2.Rubber Tyred Gantry Crane(RTGC)5+1 High 6+1 Across 16 Wheelers18
3.Reach Stacker6

Kandala port:
It is the biggest port of India which handled about 87 million tonnes of cargo during 2013-14. Kandla port is located in Kutch district of Gujarat in the Gulf of Kutch . It is the major sea port on the west coast . One of the key facts about this coast is that this coast is the first Special Economic Zones of India and also of Asia .Kandla was constructed in 1950s as the chief seaport serving western India , after the partition of Pakistan from India left the port of Karachi in Pakistan . Kandla Port is hub for major imports like petroleum, chemicals and iron also export grains,salt and textiles . Kandla is the first Export Processing Zone in India .

Mumbai port:
This is the fourth biggest ports of India in terms of its cargo capacity . This port handle about 59.19 million tonnes of cargo during the session of 2013-14 . Mumbai Port Trust is a body which handles this port .  The harbour spread over 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi) is protected by the mainland of Konkan to its east and north and by the island city of Mumbai to its west . The harbour opens to the south to the Arabian Sea . The port is administered by the Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT), an autonomous corporation wholly owned by the Government of India .

Paradip port:
Paradip Port is the senond biggest port in terms of handling cargo . This port handled about 68 million tonnes of cargo during the span of 2013-14 . Paradip Port is basically an artificial, deep-water port on the East coast of India in Jagatsinghpur district of Odisha. It is situated at confluence of the Mahanadi river and the Bay of Bengal . It is situated 210 nautical miles south of Kolkata and 260 nautical miles north of Visakhapatnam. The port is administered by the Paradip Port Trust (PPT), an autonomous corporation wholly owned by the Government of India.

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