Road Network in India

By Vivek → Thursday, 2 March 2017
India has a road network of over 5,472,144 kilometres (3,400,233 mi) as on 31 March 2015, the second largest road network in the world. At 1.66 km of roads per square kilometre of land, the quantitative density of India's road network is higher than that of Japan (0.91) and the United States (0.67), and far higher than that of China (0.46), Brazil (0.18) or Russia (0.08). However, qualitatively India's roads are a mix of modern highways and narrow, unpaved roads, and are being improved. According to the World Bank, 47.3% of all Indian roads are paved, with 34% of two-lane roads and 1% of four-lane roads being paved respectively.

highways in india
Road transport is vital to India's economy. It enables the country's transportation sector to contribute 4.7 percent towards India’s gross domestic product, in comparison to railways that contributed 1 percent, in 2009–2010. Road transport has gained its importance over the years despite significant barriers and inefficiencies in inter-state freight and passenger movement compared to railways and air. The government of India considers road network as critical to the country's development, social integration and security needs of the country. India's road network carries over 65 percent of its freight and about 85 percent of passenger traffic.

Roads

Expressways


expressways in india
Expressways make up approximately 1,208 km (751 mi) of India's road network, as of 2013. These high-speed roads are four-lane or six-lane, predominantly access controlled. The 165 kilometer Yamuna Expressway, India's longest six-laned controlled-access opened on 9 August 2012.
While the start of several expressway projects such as the Ganga Expressway have been delayed for 3 or more years, because of litigation and bureaucratic procedures, India expects another 3,530 kilometres of expressways to come up by 2014 from the projects under construction. The government has drawn up a target to lay 18,637 kilometre network of brand new expressways by 2022. Most of the existing expressways in India are toll roads.

National Highways



national highway in india
The main highways running through the length and breadth of the country connecting major ports, state capitals, large industrial and tourist centres, etc. National Highways in India are designated as NH followed by the highway number. Indian national highways are further classified based on the width of carriageway of the highway. As of March 2012, India had completed and placed in use the following newly built highways:
  • 5,846 kilometers of its 4-lane Golden Quadrilateral highway,
  • 6,310 kilometres of its 4-lane North–South and East–West Corridor highway,
  • 353 kilometres of 4-lane port connectivity highways,
  • 4,553 kilometres of 4-lane inter-capital highways,
  • 961 kilometres of 4-lane bypass and other national highways.

State Highways


state highways in india
 State Governments have the authority and responsibility to build road networks and state highways. Independent of the NHDP program, state governments have been implementing a number of state highway projects since 2000. By 2010, state highway projects worth $1.7 billion had been completed, and an additional $11.4 billion worth of projects were under implementation. The State Highways provide linkages with the National Highways, district headquarters, important towns, tourist centers and minor ports and carry the traffic along major centers within the state. Their total length is about 137,712 km.

Rural Roads


rural or village roads
The rural roads in India forms a substantial portion of the Indian road network. These roads are in poor shape, affecting the rural population's quality of life and Indian farmer's ability to transfer produce to market post-harvest. Over 30 percent of Indian farmer's harvest spoils post-harvest because of the poor infrastructure. Many rural roads are of poor quality, potholed, and unable to withstand the loads of heavy farm equipment. These roads are also far from all season, good quality 2-lane or 4-lane highways, making economic resource flow slow, and logistical costs between different parts of India one of the highest in the world. For the development of these rural roads, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (or "Prime Minister Rural Roads Scheme"), was launched in December 2000 by the Indian government to provide connectivity to unconnected rural habitations. The scheme envisions that these roads will be constructed and maintained by the village panchayats.


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