Top 7 Ancient Road Transport

By shivam → Saturday, 4 February 2017
Road transport is one of the most frequently adopted modes of transportation which directly connects various destinations . It is a kind of mode where you need not to switch between other modes as the destination is generally present by its sides . Moreover , unlike railways , you need not wait for the fixed time trains to go to your destination to deliver the goods . Just set your destination and gear up your trucks and you are all set  to make  your way to the destination . Nowadays , highways are been densely constructed connecting various parts of the nation effectively . But what were the ancient roads when highways were not constructed ? Lets take you through top 7 ancient road transports , which are as follows :-


As the Roman Empire grew up ,  there was a need for armies to be able to travel quickly from one area to another, and the roads that existed were often muddy , which greatly delayed the movement of large masses of troops . As a solution to this problem , the Romans built great roads . These 'Roman roads' used deep roadbeds of crushed stone as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry , as the water would flow out from the crushed stone , instead of becoming mud in clay soils . The legions made good time on these roads and some are still used millennia later.

On the more heavily traveled routes , there were additional layers that included six sided capstones , or pavers , that reduced the dust and reduced the drag from wheels . The pavers allowed the Roman chariots to travel very quickly , ensuring good communication with the Roman provinces . Farm roads were often paved first on the way into town , to keep produce clean . Early forms of springs and shocks to reduce the bumps were incorporated in horse-drawn transport , as the original pavers were sometimes not perfectly aligned .

Roman roads deteriorated in medieval Europe because of lack of resources and skills to maintain them , but many continued to be used . The alignments are still partially used today .


During the medieval period , in the Islamic regions , many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire . The most sophisticated roads were those of Baghdad , Iraq , which were paved with tar in the 8th century . Tar was derived from petroleum , accessed from oil fields in the region , through the chemical process of destructive distillation .These roads gained a great attention during the medieval period .


Now , there was a good craze of Harrapan roads among the civilians of Indus Valley . Street paving has been found from the first human settlements around 4000 BC in cities of the Indus Valley Civilization on the Indian subcontinent , such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro . Roads in the towns were straight and long,intersecting one another at right angles.


Wheeled transport to have been developed in ancient Sumer in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC , perhaps originally for the making of pottery . Their original transport use may have been as attachments to travois or sleds to reduce resistance . It has been argued that logs were used as rollers under sleds prior to the development of wheels , but there is no archeological evidence for this . Most early wheels appear to have been attached to fixed axles , which would have required regular lubrication by animal fats or vegetable oils or separation by leather to be effective . The first simple two-wheel carts , apparently developed from travois , appear to have been used in Mesopotamia and northern Iran in about 3000 BC and two-wheel chariots appeared in about 2800 BC . They were hauled by onagers , related to donkeys . Heavy four-wheeled wagons developed about 2500 BC , which were only suitable for oxen-haulage , and therefore were only used where crops were cultivated , particularly Mesopotamia . Two-wheeled chariots with spoked wheels appear to have been developed around 2000 BC by the Andronovo culture in southern Siberia and Central Asia . At much the same time the first primitive harness enabling horse-haulage was invented . 


Responsibility for the state of the roads lay with the local parish since Tudor times . In 1656 the parish of Radwell , Hertfordshire petitioned Parliament for help to maintain their section of the Great North Road . During the first three decades of the 18th century, sections of the main radial roads into London were put under the control of individual turnpike trusts . The pace at which new turnpikes were created picked up in the 1750s as trusts were formed to maintain the cross-routes between the Great Roads radiating from London . Roads leading into some provincial towns , particularly in Western England, were put under single trusts and key roads in Wales were turnpiked . In South Wales , the roads of complete counties were put under single turnpike trusts in the 1760s . A further surge of trust formation occurred in the 1770s , with the turnpiking of subsidiary connecting roads , routes over new bridges , new routes in the growing industrial areas and roads in Scotland . About 150 trusts were established by 1750 ; by 1772 a further 400 were established and , in 1800 , there were over 700 trusts . In 1825 about 1,000 trusts controlled 18,000 miles of road in England and Wales .


These were the roads constructed in England . During the early 19th century the concept of the turnpike trust was adopted and adapted to manage roads within the British Empire (Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and South Africa) and in the United States . Turnpikes declined with the coming of the railways and then the Local Government Act of 1888 gave responsibility for maintaining main roads to county councils and county borough councils .


John Loudon McAdam, a Scottish engineer,  who designed the first modern roads . He developed an inexpensive paving material of soil and stone aggregate (known as macadam) .  His road building method was simpler than Telford's , yet more effective at protecting roadways . He discovered that massive foundations of rock upon rock were unnecessary , and asserted that native soil alone would support the road and traffic upon it , as long as it was covered by a road crust that would protect the soil underneath from water and wear .

Time passed and technology ran all over , there was a time when people used to search for the contractor of the trucks to get their goods transported . But with the advancement of technology , you can now book a truck online between two locations of your choice and truck also of your choice  , using the websites like GoodsOnMove , which can save your time and money and also makes hassle free booking possible .

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