Goa - Industrial Development Post Independnce

By Nilabh Kumar → Thursday, 9 February 2017
Goa, the Portuguese India, is one of the most important tourist destination of the country. It is not only famous for its beaches, but the for the Indo-Portuguese culture in the past. Located in the western Ghats, this coastal region shares it boundary with the Arabian sea on the west and Karnataka and Maharashtra on the other sides. Although it is the smallest state of India, yet the city is richest GDP per capita income of the country which is two and half times the national average. It was ranked the best placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.

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Goa's state domestic product for 2007 is estimated at $3 billion at current prices. Goa is one of India's richest states with the highest GDP per capita — two and a half times that of the country — with one of its fastest growth rates: 8.23% (yearly average 1990–2000). Tourism is Goa's primary industry: it gets 12% of foreign tourist arrivals in India. Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In winter, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come, and summer (which, in Goa, is the rainy season) sees tourists from across India.
The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores, and mining forms the second largest industry. Iron, bauxite, manganese, clays, limestone and silica are mined. The Marmagao port handled 31.69 million tons of cargo last year, which was 39% of India's total iron ore exports. Sesa Goa (now owned by Vedanta Resources) and Dempo are the lead miners. The minerals are then transported for processing to other manufacturing industries and production units across the nation. There are some downsides of these mineral reserves as well. Rampant mining has been depleting the forest cover as well as posing a health hazard to the local population.
Agriculture, while of shrinking importance to the economy over the past four decades (mainly due to inefficient rainfall, unavailability of water for irrigation), offers part-time employment to a sizeable portion of the populace. Rice is the main agricultural crop, followed by areca, cashew and coconut. The harvests are supplied to the whole state, as well as the entire region. Fishing employs about 40,000 people, though recent official figures indicate a decline of the importance of this sector and also a fall in catch, due perhaps, to traditional fishing giving way to large-scale mechanized trawling.
Medium scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticides, fertilizers, tires, tubes, footwear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wheat products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning, cashew nuts, textiles, brewery products.
Currently there are 16 planned SEZs in Goa, which are the major reason for the investments and the cash inflow into the market. However, The Goa government has recently decided to not allow any more special economic zones (SEZs) in Goa after strong opposition to them by political parties and the powerful Goa Catholic Church.
Goa is also notable for its low-priced beer, wine and spirits prices due to its very low excise duty on alcohol. This is also one of the reason for the tourists to come into the state. Another source of cash inflow into the state is remittance from many of its citizens who work abroad to their families. It is said to have some of the largest bank savings in the country.
Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than two million tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1.2 million of whom were from abroad. As of 2013 Goa was a destination of choice for Indian and foreign tourists, particularly Britons and Russians, with limited means who wanted to party. The state was hopeful that changes could be made which would attract a more upscale demographic. Goa also stands 6th in the Top 10 Nightlife cities in the world in a National Geographic Book. One of the biggest tourist attractions in Goa is water sports. Beaches like Baga and Calangute offer jet-skiing, parasailing, banana boat rides, water scooter rides and more.

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Over 450 years of Portuguese rule and the influence of the Portuguese culture presents to visitors to Goa a different cultural environment than what is found elsewhere in India. Goa is often described as a fusion between Eastern and Western culture with Portuguese culture having a dominant position in the state be it in its architectural, cultural or social settings. The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and temples. The Bom Jesus Cathedral, Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism destinations.
The place has good connectivity from the other important place in the region via rail, road, air and water routes. The Goa International Airport, has direct flights to other important destinations around the globe and country.
The public road transport by the government ensures the connective to the city from the remote locations. With the presence of national Highways in the city, people from the remote areas and satellite towns can now come to the main market for business for with their product.
The railway line by the South-Western railways, have decent traffic of passengers as well as cargo trains. It connects cities like Bangalore, Mumbai, Hyderabad, etc.
The Mormugao harbor near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal, and international containers. Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goa's hinterland.
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